Stationary Energy: Stationary energy sources are commonly one of the largest contributors to a municipality’s GHG emissions. These emissions come from the combustion of fuel (e.g. natural gas) in residential, commercial and institutional buildings and facilities, and manufacturing industries and construction, as well as power plants to generate grid-supplied energy. This sector also includes fugitive emissions, which typically occur during extraction, transformation, and transportation of primary fossil fuels, and emissions resulting from the generation of electricity which is lost during transmission and distribution.
Transportation: Transportation covers all journeys by road, rail, water and air, including inter-city and international travel. GHG emissions are produced directly by the combustion of fuel or indirectly by the use of grid-supplied electricity. Collecting accurate data for transportation activities, calculating emissions and allocating these emissions to cities can be a particularly challenging process. To accommodate variations in data availability, existing transportation models, and profile purposes, the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Inventories (GPC) protocol provides flexibility in calculating emissions from transportation. Emissions from electricity used in transport such as rail travel, is included under Stationary Energy.
Waste (solid waste and waste water): Waste disposal and treatment produces GHG emissions through aerobic or anaerobic decomposition, or incineration. GHG emissions from solid waste are calculated by disposal route, namely landfill, biological treatment and incineration, and open burning. If methane is recovered from solid waste or waste water treatment facilities as an energy source, it is reported under Stationary Energy. Similarly, emissions from incineration with energy recovery are reported under Stationary Energy.
Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU): Emissions from the AFOLU sector are produced through a variety of pathways, including livestock (enteric fermentation and manure management), land use and land use change (e.g., forested land being cleared for cropland or settlements), and aggregate sources and non-CO2 emission sources on land (e.g., fertiliser application and rice cultivation). Given the highly variable nature of land-use and agricultural activity across geographies, GHG emissions from AFOLU are amongst the most complex categories for GHG accounting.